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Can graduates become global citizens without   transformative learning? 

Reflections from our October Seminar, October 28th, 2017. 

For our second BEGCE seminar, we invited Valerie Clifford to share her thoughts and research on internationalisation of the curriculum and on transformative learning as it relates to global citizenship education.

Click here to view seminar slides.


In posing the question 'Can our graduates become global citizens without transformative learning?' we hoped to challenge participants to reflect on what transformative learning might mean to educators in their everyday teaching practice, and what it could mean to potentially facilitate such a process in a tertiary educational setting such as La Trobe.  

Transformative learning is process-focused. It means a learning process that unsettles personal presuppositions, but with a degree of security, safety: a disorienting dilemma that nonetheless fulfills…eventually 

What does transformative learning mean to La Trobe educators?

Asking our students to think beyond their first world problems and put themselves in the context of the whole world or their place and role in it. 

Challenging ones existing knowledge through a new experience. Co-constructive learning

"Any learning that gives students a new perspective or alternate view to what they already may know. Or opens student’s minds to new idea/topic. Causes excitement/interest to pursue further."

Associate Professor Valerie Clifford 

Associate Professor Valerie Clifford has worked in academic development for many years in New Zealand, Fiji, UK, South Africa, Malaysia and Australia. Her posts have included: Head of the Academic Development Unit at Monash University; and being Director of the Centre for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching at the University of the South Pacific in Fiji. Over the last decade her teaching and research has focused on internationalisation of the curriculum, from debating ideas on the purpose of higher education to practical consideration of how ideals can be put into practice. While Deputy Head of the Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development from 2006 - 2010, she was the inaugural Director of CICIN, the Centre for International Curriculum Inquiry and Networking (now CCI, Centre for Curriculum Internationalization). 

Her recent publications include: 

  • Clifford, V. & Montgomery, C. (2017). Designing an internationationalised curriculum for higher education: embracing the local and the global citizen. Higher Education Research and Development, 36(6), 1138-1151. 

  • Clifford, V. & Montgomery, C. (2015). Transformative Learning Through Internationalization of the Curriculum in Higher Education. Journal of Transformative Education, 13(1), 46-64. 

  • Clifford, V. & Montgomery, C. Challenging Conceptions of Western Higher Education and Promoting Graduates as Global Citizens. Higher Education Quarterly, 68(1), 28–45, (2014). 

  • Clifford, V. & Montgomery, C. (2011). Moving towards Internationalization of the Curriculum in Higher Education,, Oxford: OCSLD, Oxford Brookes University  

  • Clifford, V. (Guest Editor) (2011). Internationalising the Home Student. Special Issue. Higher Education Research and Development, 30(5).  

  • Clifford, V.A. (2009). Engaging the Disciplines in Internationalising the Curriculum, International Journal of Academic Development, 14(2) 133-143. 

  • Clifford, V. (Guest Editor) (2009). Using formal and informal curricula to improve interactions between home and international students. Special Issue. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13.